Tag Archives: Religion

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion

19 Sep
"A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion" Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

“A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion” Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

An except from my, “A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion”.

When General Plutarco Elías Calles was elected President during the summer of 1924, he was regarded as a leader of the left wing, an enemy of the old military chieftains, and the hacendados who hated agrarian reform. He had little of Obregón’s tolerance. He proposed to govern as a master, if necessary as a dictator.

He paid little attention to Obregón who was forced to return to his farm in Sonora.

Calles entered office with a passion for social reform, promising to enforce provisions of the Constitution which Obregón had chosen to ignore. In his four years he would advance the promises of the Revolution.

(In Chicago Al Capone was king in 1925, with a gang of 700 gunsels controlling 10,000 speakeasies. In New York the “New Yorker” magazine was launched, tackling American life with a wicked, penetrating wit.)

The Calles period would be one of commercial prosperity, and as a result the government had more money at its disposal. Calles carried forward the Educational Program which had been initiated by José Vasconcelos, started campaigns of sanitation and hygiene, began extensive programs for irrigation, and built modern roads.
Calles was also embroiled in a battle with “foreign” oil companies for control of the oil fields, and their wealth.

Calles threatened to, “light up New Orleans with the fire of the oil fields.”

Agrarian reform moved forward with the distribution of 8 million acres to 1,500 villages, and agricultural banks were formed. But serious opposition began to fester among Church radicals who were bitterly opposed to land redistribution.

In April of 1926, the Church republished speeches in opposition to the Constitution, and the conflict began to look like a war to the death between the Church and the Revolution.

On March 5, 1926, President Plutarco Elías Calles urged state governors to enforce constitutional articles on religion saying, “As long as I am President of the Republic, the Constitution of 1917, will be obeyed”.

In a dramatic attempt to focus public opinion, the Church decreed a cessation of public worship. On Sunday, August 1, 1926, not one priest mounted the altar of a Mexican church for morning Mass for the first time in 400 years.

Chapter Six

THE CRISTERO REBELLION
The Cristeros, soldiers of Christ, were country people of the States of Jalisco, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Durango, and Zacatecas. They were mostly landed farmers, students, and women in whose lives religion played an important part. They followed the orders given by an association known as, the Catholic Association of Mexican Youth (ACJM).

On September 21, 1926, Congress rejected a petition to rescind the repressive laws against the Church, signed by 2 million Catholic Mexicans. The only course of action left for the NLRD was to take up arms.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion

9 May
Download Your copy today from Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and Google Play.

Download Your copy today from Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and Google Play.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion

8 May
Download Your copy today from Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; or Google Play/U.S.

Download Your copy today from Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; or Google Play/U.S.

An except from my, “A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion”.

When General Plutarco Elías Calles was elected President during the summer of 1924, he was regarded as a leader of the left wing, an enemy of the old military chieftains, and the hacendados who hated agrarian reform. He had little of Obregón’s tolerance. He proposed to govern as a master, if necessary as a dictator.

He paid little attention to Obregón who was forced to return to his farm in Sonora.

Calles entered office with a passion for social reform, promising to enforce provisions of the Constitution which Obregón had chosen to ignore. In his four years he would advance the promises of the Revolution.

(In Chicago Al Capone was king in 1925, with a gang of 700 gunsels controlling 10,000 speakeasies. In New York the “New Yorker” magazine was launched, tackling American life with a wicked, penetrating wit.)

The Calles period would be one of commercial prosperity, and as a result the government had more money at its disposal. Calles carried forward the Educational Program which had been initiated by José Vasconcelos, started campaigns of sanitation and hygiene, began extensive programs for irrigation, and built modern roads.
Calles was also embroiled in a battle with “foreign” oil companies for control of the oil fields, and their wealth. He threatened to, “light up New Orleans with the fire of the oil fields.”

Agrarian reform moved forward with the distribution of 8 million acres to 1,500 villages, and agricultural banks were formed. But serious opposition began to fester among Church radicals who were bitterly opposed to land redistribution.

In April of 1926, the Church republished speeches in opposition to the Constitution, and the conflict began to look like a war to the death between the Church and the Revolution.

On March 5, 1926, President Plutarco Elías Calles urged state governors to enforce constitutional articles on religion saying, “As long as I am President of the Republic, the Constitution of 1917, will be obeyed”.

In a dramatic attempt to focus public opinion, the Church decreed a cessation of public worship. On Sunday, August 1, 1926, not one priest mounted the altar of a Mexican church for morning Mass for the first time in 400 years.

Chapter Six

THE CRISTERO REBELLION
The Cristeros, soldiers of Christ, were country people of the States of Jalisco, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Durango, and Zacatecas. They were mostly landed farmers, students, and women in whose lives religion played an important part. They followed the orders given by an association known as, the Catholic Association of Mexican Youth (ACJM).

On September 21, 1926, Congress rejected a petition to rescind the repressive laws against the Church, signed by 2 million Catholic Mexicans. The only course of action left for the NLRD was to take up arms.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion

4 May
Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and soon on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and soon on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion – A book with the complete forgotten history of the Rebellion against the Calles Administration 1926-1930 in which the Pope closed the Mexican churches, and the government waged modern warfare against their own people over religious differences. hundreds of thousands of people died and a half million people migrated to the U.S.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion

3 May
Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and soon on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and soon on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion – A book with the complete, forgotten history of the Rebellion against the Calles Administration 1926-1930 in which the Pope closed the Mexican churches, and the government waged modern warfare against their own people over religious differences. hundreds of thousands of people died and a half million people migrated to the U.S.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion

2 May
Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and soon on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

Download Your copy on Amazon.com; Barnes and Noble.com; Kobo.com; and soon on Google Play. Search William J. Conaway.

A Gringo Guide to the Cristero Rebellion – A book with the complete forgotten history of the Rebellion against the Calles Administration 1926-1930 in which the Pope closed the Mexican churches, and the government waged modern warfare against their own people over religious differences. Hundreds of thousands of people died and a half million people migrated to the U.S.

A Gringo Guide to Mexican History – an Excerpt

21 Dec

Mexican History Medium

An Excerpt from my “Gringo Guide to Mexican History”.

 

The Religious Conquest of Mexico
In 1529, Don Juan de Zumárraga, first Bishop and Archbishop of México, wrtoe in a report to the King:

“We are very busy with our continuous and great work in the conversion of the infidels of whom…over a million people have been baptized, five hundred temples of idols have been razed to the ground and over 20,000 images of devils that they adored have been broken to pieces and burned…And…the infidels of this city of México, who in former times had the custom of sacrificing each year over 20,000 human hearts to their idols, now make their offerings to God instead of to the devils…. Many of these children, and others who are older, know how to read, write, sing, and sound the proper pitches for singing…. They watch with extreme care to see where their parents hide their idols, and then they steal them and faithfully bring them to our friars. For doing this, some have been cruelly slain by their own parents, but they live crowned in glory with Christ…. Each one of our monasteries has next to it a house in which children are taught and where there is a school, a dormitory, a dining hall and a chapel for devotion…. Blessed be the Lord for everything….”

(You read it, in five short years they had baptized over a million people. The friars had destroyed 500 temples of idols, and 20,000 images of idols!)
Also among the missionaries first chores was to study the native languages and dialects and to compile vocabulary lists and other linguistic guides, and finally, dictionaries to aid them in teaching the natives the elements of faith, preparing them for baptism. And they baptized hundreds of thousands of the Indians they encountered during their lifetimes. They taught the people how to live better, helped them learn trades, and improved their artistic abilities.

These friars walked about barefoot with only their heavy woolen habits to cover them. They slept on the ground and begged for food in the Indian markets, sometimes even eating tortillas with whatever fruits and berries they could gather. The robes they brought with them from Spain were the only clothes they possessed and were soon worn out. (Clothing was a big problem for everyone in those days.) A legend persists to this day:

Don Martín, an Indian Cacique, Chieftan, of the village of Guacachula, seeing the disgraceful condition of his friars robes, sent several skilled artisans out to work for a newly arrived Spaniard who was weaving cloth on his imported looms and selling all he could produce. These spies were able to learn the trade in a short time and carefully took measurements of all the parts of the looms they worked on. Returning to the village they built their own looms and were soon producing sackcloth for the friars as well as for themselves.

The obvious difference between the humble friars and the conquistadores who built themselves fine homes and gorged themselves with all the best, was all too obvious to the poor Indians.

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